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双语故事:34;石油之王34;的复杂人生(2)

2019年11月03日 英语美文 暂无评论
摘要:

在发展业务的过程当中,里奇培养出了一代高忠诚度、高收入的个人交易员——其中很多人凭借自己的能力成为了百万富翁。这批人中包括合并后的嘉能可与斯特拉塔的首席执行官伊凡格拉森伯

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In the process, Rich also fostered a generation of highly loyal, highly paid individual traders – many of whom became millionaires in their own right. They included Ivan Glasenberg, GlencoreXstrata’s chief executive, who was once a coal trader for Rich. Yesterday, Mr Glasenberg paid tribute to him as “a friend and one of the great pioneers of the commodities trading industry”.
在发展业务的过程当中,里奇培养出了一代高忠诚度、高收入的个人交易员——其中很多人凭借自己的能力成为了百万富翁。这批人中包括合并后的嘉能可与斯特拉塔的首席执行官伊凡格拉森伯格(Ivan Glasenberg),他曾是里奇手下的一名煤炭交易员。里奇逝世当天,格拉森伯格发言悼念里奇,称他是“一位朋友,以及大宗商品交易领域的伟大先行者之一。”
While Rich is sometimes credited with having invented the crude oil spot market, traders say it is more accurate to say that – by operating faster, and with greater determination and skill than competitors – he perfected the modern system of trading oil independently of the majors.
虽然里奇有些时候被认为是原油现货交易市场的开创者,但交易员们指出,说里奇完善了独立于其他主要品种、专门交易石油的现代交易系统更为准确——里奇提高了石油交易系统的运行速度,并展现出了相对于竞争对手来说更大的决心以及更高的商业技巧。
But his model would have been merely a bright idea without the highly aggressive, risk-hungry style with which he implemented it.
但如果没有那种极其激进、高度风险偏好的执行风格,里奇的交易系统模型将仅仅只是一个聪明的构想。
When the Shah of Iran was toppled in 1979 – and with him many of Marc Rich + Co’s oil industry contacts – Rich was able to use the political neutrality of his company’s Swiss base to continue trading through the ensuing US hostage crisis and consequent business sanctions.
当伊朗国王于1979年被推翻时——马克里奇公司在石油领域的很多人脉也随之被切断——里奇利用了自己公司总部所在地瑞士的政治中立性,在紧接着发生的美国人质危机以及对伊朗商业制裁期间继续进行交易活动。
Paradoxically, as journalist Daniel Ammann recounted in his 2009 biography The King of Oil, Rich’s willingness to trade with everyone – including apartheid South Africa, Fidel Castro’s Cuba and the Ayatollah Khomeini’s Iran – also made him the obvious intermediary to maintain the supply of oil to Israel.
而根据记者丹尼尔阿曼恩(Daniel Ammann)在2009年出版的里奇传记《石油之王》(The King of Oil)中的叙述,里奇愿意与任何人进行交易——包括种族隔离制度之下的南非、菲德尔卡斯特罗(Fidel Castro)治下的古巴,以及阿亚图拉霍梅尼(Ayatollah Khomeini)控制的伊朗——也使他显而易见地成为了维持以色列石油供应的中间商。
Meanwhile, he was diversifying into other sectors, buying 20th Century Fox in 1981 with industrialist Marvin Davis (a stake later sold to Rupert Murdoch).
与此同时,里奇还进入其他领域开展多元化经营。他与实业家马文戴维斯(Marvin Davis)联手,于1981年收购了二十世纪福克斯(20th Century Fox)。后来,他的股份被出售给了鲁珀特默多克(Rupert Murdoch)。
In 1983, however, the period that colleagues described as a “golden age” for Marc Rich + Co came to an end, when Rudolph Giuliani, then US attorney in Manhattan, indicted Rich and Mr Green. They fled the US for Switzerland. He avoided arrest by US agents, but at great personal cost: for instance, he reluctantly decided not to join his daughter in the US hospital where she was dying from cancer in 1996 for fear he would be arrested.
但到了1983年,被员工们称作是马克里奇公司“黄金时代”的日子戛然而止,当时美国曼哈顿律师鲁道夫朱利安尼(Rudolph Giuliani)向里奇和格林提起诉讼。两人离开美国逃往瑞士。里奇躲开了美国特工们的追捕,但他自己也付出了巨大代价:例如,1996年当他的女儿因癌症而奄奄一息时,他极不情愿地决定不去美国医院看望女儿,因为担心会遭逮捕。
Rich never returned to the US, even after his pardon, and continued to point out until his death that his Swiss company’s business with Iran was legal under Swiss law. He told his biographer he was an “easy target, one individual, very successful, making a lot of money, and Jewish” and he had not returned to defend himself after 1983, because he was afraid he would not get a fair trial.
里奇再也没有回到过美国,即使在得到了赦免之后。他生前曾不断地指出,自己在瑞士成立的公司与伊朗之间的商业往来符合瑞士法律。他对自己的传记作家表示,自己“很容易成为靶子,作为个体,非常成功,赚了大把钞票,而且还是犹太人”。在1983年以后,里奇也从未回到美国为自己辩护,因为他担心自己不会得到一场公正的审判。
Latterly, Rich had devoted an increasing amount of time and money to philanthropy. His family company’s website says four foundations he established have donated more than $150m to various causes over the past two decades. Israel, repaying his long association in business and charitable ventures, granted him a series of honours and he is expected to be buried in Tel Aviv tomorrow.
近些年来,里奇投入了越来越多的时间和金钱用于慈善事业。来自他的家族企业网站的信息显示,他所创立的四个基金会在过去二十年中向多个项目捐款超过1.5亿元。以色列为了回报他长期以来的商业往来以及慈善事业,授予了他一连串荣誉称号。里奇将在以色列的特拉维夫(Tel Aviv)下葬。
In a later interview in 2011 with the Swiss weekly Die Weltwoche, Rich described himself as a success in business – Forbes reported his net worth in 2012 as $2.5bn – but a failure in his private life, having divorced twice.
里奇在2011年接受瑞士《国际周报》(Die Weltwoche)采访时表示,自己在商业上是一名成功人士——据《福布斯》(Forbes)杂志报导,2012年里奇的资产净值为25亿美元——但在私人生活上则是一个失败者,曾经两次离婚。
He is survived by his daughters, Ilona Schachter-Rich and Danielle Kilstock Rich.
他还有两个女儿伊诺娜沙赫特-里奇(Ilona Schachter-Rich)和丹妮尔基尔斯托克里奇(Danielle Kilstock Rich)在世。
Although he had renounced his US citizenship, at the time of his death Rich held Belgian, Israeli and Spanish passports – symbols of his contradictory, controversial, multinational career. His official biography concludes, simply: “Marc Rich excels as a skier and patron of the arts”. The reality was far more complex.
里奇曾经声明放弃自己的美国公民身份,在去世之时他拥有比利时、以色列以及西班牙三国护照——这是他充满矛盾和争议、横跨多个国家的职业生涯的缩影。他的官方传记的结尾非常简单:“马克里奇是一位出色的滑雪者以及艺术赞助人。”但现实的复杂程度远甚于此。
Additional reporting by John Aglionby and James Shotter
约翰阿格里昂比(John Aglionby)和詹姆斯肖特(James Shotter)补充报道

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