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英语视频畅谈欧美人文风情112:联合王国,大不列

2019年10月18日 英语美文 暂无评论
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英语视频畅谈欧美人文风情112:联合王国,大不列颠和英格兰,讲述了关于tour the World,含有中英双语阅读、视频及mp3下载。

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Welcome to The United Kingdom (And a whole lot more). Explained by me, C.G.P. Grey.

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欢迎收看《联合王国》(以及其他种种)由我,C.G.P. Grey为您解说。 内容来自美文网

United Kingdom, England, Great Britain? Are these three the same place? Are they different places? Do British people secretly laugh those who use the terms incorrectly? Who knows the answers to these questions? I do, and I'm gonna tell you right now.

www.verywen.com

联合王国,英格兰,大不列颠?这三个是同一个地方吗?还是它们是不同所在?英国人会偷偷嘲笑那些误用这些名词的人吗?谁知道这些问题的答案?我知道,现在我给您道来。

verywen.com

For the lost: This is the world, this is the European continent and this is the place we have to untangle.

verywen.com

迷途羔羊们:这是全世界,这是欧洲大陆,而这是我们必须要解开谜底的地方。 verywen.com

The area shown in purple is the United Kingdom. Part of the confusion is that the United Kingdom is not a single country but instead is a country of countries. It contains inside of it four co-equal and sovereign nations. verywen.com

紫色这块区域是联合王国。一部分的混淆是指联合王国不是一个单一的国家而是个由多个国家组成的国家。它内部包含了四个相互平等的主权国家。 美文网

The first of these is England, shown here in red. England is often confused with the United Kingdom as a whole, because it's the largest and most populous of the nations and contains the de facto capital city, London. 内容来自美文网

首先是英格兰,这里用红色表示。英格兰通常被误认是整个联合王国,因为它是最大且人口最多的国家,还包含了实质上的首都,伦敦。 verywen.com

To the north is Scotland, shown in blue, and to the west is Wales, shown in white. And what's often forgotten even by those who live in the United Kingdom, is Northern Ireland, shown in orange.

内容来自美文网

北边是苏格兰,用蓝色表示,而往西边是威尔士,用白色表示。而时常甚至被活在联合王国内的人们给遗忘的是北爱尔兰,用橘色表示。 内容来自美文网

Each country has a local term for the population. While you can call them all British, it's not recommended as the four countries generally don't like each other. verywen.com

每个国家都有个称呼人民的当地专有名词。尽管你可以统称他们为英国人,但还是不建议那样做,因为这四个国家通常不会互相喜欢。

内容来自美文网

The Northern Irish, Scottish and Welsh regard the English as slave-driving colonial masters, no matter that all three have their own devolved Parliaments, and are allowed to vote on English laws despite the reverse not being true, and the English generally regard the rest as rural yokels who spend too much time with their sheep. 美文网

北爱尔兰人,苏格兰人和威尔人认为英格兰人是奴役他人的殖民主子,所有这三个国家都有他们自己传承下来的国会,也被允许参与英格兰立法投票,尽管反之却行不通(英格兰人无法干涉这三个国家的内政),而英格兰人通常认为其他人是农村来的乡巴佬,花太多时间在他们的绵羊身上。

本文来自美文网

However, as the four constituent countries don't have their own passports, they are all British Citizens, like it or not. They are British Citizens of the United Kingdom, whose full name by the way is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. copyright verywen.com

然而,因为这四个构成国并没有自己的护照,不管喜不喜欢,他们都是英国公民。他们是联合王国的英国公民,顺带一提,联合王国的全名是大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国。 verywen.com

So where's Great Britain hiding?

本文来自美文网

所以大不列颠藏在哪里? www.verywen.com

Right here: the area covered in black is Great Britain. Unlike England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, Great Britain is a geographical rather than a political term. Great Britain is the largest island among the British Isles. www.verywen.com

就在这儿:黑色覆盖的区域是大不列颠。不像英格兰,苏格兰,威尔士和北爱尔兰一样,大不列颠是个地理上而不是政治上的名词。大不列颠是不列颠群岛中最大的岛屿。

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Within the United Kingdom, the term Great Britain is often used to refer to England, Scotland and Wales alone, with the intentional exclusion of Northern Ireland. copyright verywen.com

在联合王国内,大不列颠这个名词通常用来单独指英格兰,苏格兰和威尔士,刻意将北爱尔兰排除在外。这大多数时候是正确的,但也不完全对,因为所有三个构成国都拥有不属于大不列颠的岛屿,像是英格兰的一部分--维特岛、威尔士的安格里斯岛、苏格兰的赫布里底群岛、谢德兰群岛、奥克尼群岛和克莱德群岛。 本文来自美文网

This is mostly, but not completely true, as all three constituent countries have islands that are not part of Great Britain, such as The Isle of Wight, part of England, the Welsh Isle of Anglesey, the Scottish Hebrides, the Shetland Islands, the Orkney Islands and the Islands of the Clyde. verywen.com

不列颠群岛第二大的岛屿是爱尔兰。 美文网

The second biggest island in the British Isles is Ireland. 内容来自美文网

现在值得注意的是,爱尔兰不是个国家。就像大不列颠一样,它是个地理上,而不是政治上的名词。 本文来自美文网

It is worth noting at this point that Ireland is not a country. Like Great Britain, it's a geographical, not political term. 内容来自美文网

爱尔兰岛包含了两个国家:我们已经讨论过了的北爱尔兰和爱尔兰共和国。

www.verywen.com

The Island of Ireland contains on it two countries: Northern Ireland, which we have already discussed and the Republic of Ireland. www.verywen.com

当人们说他们是爱尔兰人,他们提到的是爱尔兰共和国,和联合王国是分开的两个国家。

美文网

When people say they are Irish, they are referring to the Republic of Ireland, which is a separate country from the United Kingdom. 本文来自美文网

然而,爱尔兰共和国和联合王国都是欧盟成员,即便英格兰特别喜欢装得好像是个大西洋中间而不是在法国海岸线外五十公里处的岛屿。但那又是另一个故事了。 本文来自美文网

However, both the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom are members of the European Union, even though England in particular likes to pretend that it's an Island in the Mid-Atlantic, rather than fifty kilometers off the coast of France. But that's a story for another time. www.verywen.com

复习一下:

美文网

To review: verywen.com

不列颠群岛中两个最大的岛屿是爱尔兰和大不列颠。爱尔兰中有两个国家:爱尔兰共和国和北爱尔兰,而大不列颠主要包含三个国家:英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士。这最后三个,当和北爱尔兰结合在一起时,组成了联合王国。 美文网

The two largest islands in the British Isles are Ireland and Great Britain. Ireland has on it two countries: the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, while Great Britain mostly contains three: England, Scotland and Wales. These last three, when combined with Northern Ireland, form the United Kingdom. 本文来自美文网

还有很多有待回答的问题,像是:为何,当你到加拿大旅游时,在钱币上有不列颠帝王? www.verywen.com

There are still many unanswered questions, such as: Why, when you travel to Canada, is there British Royalty on the money? www.verywen.com

要回答这问题,我们得谈谈帝国。 本文来自美文网

To answer this, we need to talk about Empire. verywen.com

你不能上过了英语系世界的学校而不知道不列颠帝国曾经横跨全世界四分之一的土地并统治了将近全世界四分之一的人民。 copyright verywen.com

You can't have gone to school in the English-speaking world without having learned that the British Empire once spanned a fourth of world's land and governed nearly a fourth of world's people. 内容来自美文网

尽管要记得那些透过暴力脱离不列颠帝国的部分地区是很容易的,我们常常忘记有多少国家是透过外交手段获得独立,而不是透过流血冲突。 本文来自美文网

While it's easy to remember the parts of the British Empire that broke away violently, we often forget how many nations gained independence through diplomacy, not bloodshed. copyright verywen.com

这些自称的国家和帝国签订合约,此中他们继续认同君主为元首,交换当地自治的国会。 www.verywen.com

These want-to-be nations struck a deal with the Empire, where they continued to recognize the monarch(y) as the head of state in exchange for a local, autonomous parliament.

内容来自美文网

要了解他们如何连结在一起的,我们得谈谈王权。不是位于伦敦塔的玻璃后面,为英国赚取游客数百万英镑的实体王冠,而是最容易被人想成是一人企业般的复杂法定实体的王权。
谁创立了这企业?

本文来自美文网

To understand how they are connected, we need to talk about the Crown. Not the physical crown that sits behind glass in the Tower of London and earns millions of tourist pounds for the UK, but the Crown as a complicated legal entity best thought of as a one-man corporation. verywen.com

老天爷创的。 内容来自美文网

Who created this corporation? verywen.com

根据英国传统所有权力是神所授予的,而君主在一个基督教仪式上加冕的。然而神--不想心烦于细部管理--方便地将他的权力委派给了一个称做王权的实体。尽管那以前曾是伦敦塔里的实体王冠,它日渐演变成为一个法律上的独资公司,仅受支配一切的君主控制。 本文来自美文网

God Did. verywen.com

它有效的提醒着我们联合王国严格地来说仍然是个神权政治,在位的君主同时担任元首和法定国教:英国国教的最高总督。

内容来自美文网

According to British Tradition all power is vested in God, and the monarch is crowned in a Christian ceremony. God howevernot wanting to be bothered with micromanagementconveniently delegates his power to an entity called the Crown. While this used to be the physical crown in the Tower of London, it evolved over time into a legal corporation sole, able to be controlled only by the ruling monarch. copyright verywen.com

这些就是当涉及一个拥有千年历史的君权政治产生的怪事。 verywen.com

It's a useful reminder that the United Kingdom is still technically a theocracy with the reigning monarch acting as both the head of state and the supreme governor of the official state religion: Anglicanism.

内容来自美文网

回来看看加拿大以及其它:那些通过外交以及继续认同王权统治而获得独立的前殖民地被称作英联邦王国。

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Such are the oddities that arise when dealing with a thousand-year-old Monarchy. www.verywen.com

按照人口数递减的次序,它们是:加拿大、澳洲、巴布亚新几内亚、纽西兰、牙买加、索罗门群岛、贝里斯、巴哈马、巴贝多、圣露西亚、圣文森、格瑞那达、安地卡及巴布达、圣克里斯多福及尼维斯和图瓦卢。 内容来自美文网

Back to Canada and the rest: The former colonies that gained their independence through diplomacy and continue to recognize the authority of the Crown are known as the Commonwealth Realm.

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通通都是独立国家但仍然认同君主为元首,即便它在境内几乎没有实际权力。 本文来自美文网

They are, in decreasing order of population: Canada, Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Jamaica, the Solomon Islands, Belize, the Bahamas, Barbados, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada, Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Tuvalu. 内容来自美文网

有三个属于王权,更进一步的实体,这些是皇家属地:马恩岛、泽西岛和根西岛。 www.verywen.com

All are independent nations but still recognize the monarch(y) as the head of state, even though it has little real power within their borders.

内容来自美文网

不像英联邦王国,它们不被认为是独立国家,但王权授予自治权和联合王国所赋予的英国公民身分,虽然联合王国的确保留了驳回当地议会法律的权力。 verywen.com

There are three further entities that belong to the Crown, and these are the Crown Dependencies: The Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey. 美文网

我们全都讲完了吗? 内容来自美文网

Unlike the Commonwealth Realm, they are not considered independent nations, but are granted local autonomy by the Crown and British Citizenship by the United Kingdom, though the UK does reserve the right to overrule the laws of their local assemblies. 本文来自美文网

快了,但还没。仍有些尚未解决的问题,像是这地方:西班牙南岸的直布罗陀小城市,以岩石、猴子和造成联合王国及西班牙间的外交紧张局势而出名。 美文网

Are we all done now?

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那么福克兰群岛呢?那造成了联合王国和阿根廷间许多紧张情势,它们曾因而打仗。 内容来自美文网

Almost, but not quite. There are still a couple of loose threads, such as this place: The tiny city of Gibraltar on the Southern Cost of Spain, famous for its rock, its monkeys and for causing diplomatic tension between the United Kingdom and Spain.

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这些地点属于最后一组的皇家领地,也就是着名的英属海外领土。但它们先前的名字皇家殖民地透露出它们的来由。它们是不列颠帝国的最后遗迹。 本文来自美文网

Or what about the Falkland Islands? Which caused so much tension between the United Kingdom and Argentina that they went to war over them.

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不像英联邦王国,它们还没成为独立国家,并继续在军事上,有时候经济上依靠联合王国的协助。就像是皇家属地一样,每个在它们境内出生的人都是英国公民。

内容来自美文网

These places belong in the last group of Crown Properties, known as British Overseas Territories. But their former name Crown Colonies gives away their origins. They are the last vestiges of the British Empire. copyright verywen.com

皇家殖民地,按照人口数递减的次序为:百慕达、开曼群岛、特克斯和凯科斯群岛、直布罗陀、英属维京群岛、亚克罗提利与德凯利亚、安圭拉、圣赫伦那、亚森欣岛、特里斯坦-达库尼亚、蒙特塞拉特岛、英属印度洋领地、南乔治亚及南三明治群岛、福克兰群岛、英属南极领土和皮特凯恩群岛。 美文网

Unlike the Commonwealth Realm, they have not become independent nations and continue to rely on the United Kingdom for military and sometimes economic assistance. Like the Crown Dependencies, everyone born within their borders is a British Citizen. www.verywen.com

在我们最后的范恩图中,联合王国是个位于不列颠群岛的国家而且是君主统治的王权中的一部分。 www.verywen.com

The Crown Colonies are, in decreasing order of population: Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, the Turks and Caicos Islands, Gibraltar, the British Virgin Islands, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Anguilla, Saint Helena, the Ascension Islands, Tristan da Cunha, Montserrat, the British Indian Ocean Territory, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich 美文网

部分的王权国家以及不列颠群岛也是皇家属地。前帝国中仍然认同王权的独立国家是英联邦王国,而前帝国中的非独立残存者则是英属海外领土。 本文来自美文网

Islands, the Falkland Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and the Pitcairn Islands. copyright verywen.com

非常感谢你的收看。 本文来自美文网

For our final Venn diagram, the United Kingdom is a country situated on the British Isles and is part of the Crown which is controlled by the monarch(y). 美文网

内容来自美文网

Also part of the Crown and the British Isles are the Crown Dependencies. The independent nations of the former empire that still recognize the Crown are the Commonwealth Realm, and the non-independent remnants of the former empire are the British Overseas Territories.

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Thank you very much for watching. 美文网

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