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培根散文随笔集第39章: Of Custom Education 论习惯

2019年10月16日 英语美文 暂无评论
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39 Of Custom Education 论习惯与教育Mens thoughts are much according to their inclination: their discourse and speeches according to their learning, and infused opinions; but their deeds are after as they have been accustomed. And therefore, as M

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39 of custom education 论习惯与教育 美文网

men's thoughts are much according to their inclination: their discourse and speeches according to their learning, and infused opinions; but their deeds are after as they have been accustomed. and therefore, as machiavelli well noteth (though in an evil favoured instance) there is no trusting to the force of nature, nor to the bravery of words; except it be corroborate by custom. his instance is, that for the achieving of a desperate conspiracy, a man should not rest upon the fierceness of any man's nature, or his resolute undertakings; but take such an one, as hath had his hands formerly in blood. but machiavelli knew not of a friar clement, nor a ravillac, nor a jaureguy, nor a baltazar gerard: yet his rule holdeth still, that nature, nor the engagement of words, are not so forcible as custom. only superstition is now so well advanced, that men of the first blood are as firm as butchers by occupation: and votary resolution is made equipollent to custom, even in matter of blood. in other things, the predominancy of custom is everywhere visible; in so much, as a man would wonder, to hear men profess, protest, engage, give great words, and then do just as they have done before: as if they were dead images, and engines moved only by the wheels of custom. verywen.com
人们底思想多是依从着他们底愿望的,他们底谈论和言语多是依从着他们底学问和从外面得来的见解的;但是他们底行为却是随着他们平日的习惯的。所以马基亚委利说得很好(虽然他所论的事是很丑的),天性底力量和言语底动人,若无习惯底增援,都是不可靠的。他所论的事情是,为了完成一件极险恶的阴谋,一个人不可信任所用的某人之天性底凶猛或约言底坚决,而应当任用以前曾经亲自下过手,手上染过他人底血的人。但是马基亚委利不知道有一个乞僧克莱门,也不知道有一个哈委亚克,也不知道有一个约尔基,也不知道有一个巴尔塔萨尔杰拉尔;然而他底定律依然是不移的,就是,天性与言语上的允诺要约都不如习惯有力。只有一件,就是现在迷信很盛,以致初次为迷信杀人的人简直是和业屠的人一样地不动心;盟誓底决意也被作成与习惯一样地强,甚至在流血的事件中亦是如此。在迷信以外的事情中习惯之凌驾一切是处处可见的;其势力之强,使得人们于自白、抗辩、允诺、夸张之后,依然一仍旧贯地作下去,好象他们是无生命的偶像,和由习惯底轮子来转动着的机械似的,这种情形真使人惊讶。

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