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培根散文随笔集第45章:Of Building 论建筑 (中英

2019年10月16日 英语美文 暂无评论
摘要:

培根散文随笔集中英对照,通过阅读文学名著学语言,是掌握英语的绝佳方法。既可接触原汁原味的英语,又能享受文学之美,一举两得,何乐不为?对于喜欢阅读名著的读者,这是一个最好的

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培根散文随笔集中英对照,通过阅读文学名著学语言,是掌握英语的绝佳方法。既可接触原汁原味的英语,又能享受文学之美,一举两得,何乐不为?
对于喜欢阅读名著的读者,这是一个最好的时代,因为有成千上万的书可以选择;这又是一个不好的时代,因为在浩繁的卷帙中,很难找到适合自己的好书。而培根的散文随笔,浓缩的不仅仅是文学,还是智慧。相信对阅读和写作都有很好的帮助。 www.verywen.com

Of Building 培根论建筑

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HOUSES are built to live in, and not to look on; therefore let use be preferred before uniformity, except where both may be had. Leave the goodly fabrics of houses, for beauty only, to the enchanted palaces of the poets; who build them with small cost.
造房子是为了让人居住,而不是供人观赏。所以,当美观和实用不能兼顾时,就应该如果先满足实用。如果单纯地追求美观,那么,建筑只能留给诗人海市蜃楼,因为,诗人们建造这些幻觉中的房屋是不需要花钱的。

He that builds a fair house, upon an ill seat, committeth himself to prison. Neither do I reckon it an ill seat, only where the air is unwholesome; but likewise where the air is unequal; as you shall see many fine seats set upon a knap of ground, environed with higher hills round about it; whereby the heat of the sun is pent in, and the wind gathereth as in troughs; so as you shall have, and that suddenly, as great diversity of heat and cold as if you dwelt in several places. verywen.com
把一幢漂亮的房子建在一个不佳的地点,有如替自己盖了一座监狱。我所谓的地点不佳,不仅仅是指空气不好,也包括气温的不稳定。经常可以看到,有些漂亮的别墅建在一个小山丘上,四周群山环绕,结果,不但太阳的热量被关闭了进去,而且空气也不流通,好像闷在槽子里一样。所以,住在这里的人,必须忍受冷热的突然交替,其温差之大往往使人感到一天之内经历了四季。 内容来自美文网

Neither is it ill air only that maketh an ill seat, but ill ways, ill markets; and, if you will consult with Momus, ill neighbors. I speak not of many more; want of water; want of wood, shade, and shelter; want of fruitfulness, and mixture of grounds of several natures; want of prospect; want of level grounds; want of places at some near distance for sports of hunting, hawking, and races; too near the sea, too remote; having the commodity of navigable rivers, or the discommodity of their overflowing; too far off from great cities, which may hinder business, or too near them, which lurcheth all provisions, and maketh everything dear; where a man hath a great living laid together, and where he is scanted: all which, as it is impossible perhaps to find together, so it is good to know them, and think of them, that a man may take as many as he can; and if he have several dwellings, that he sort them so that what he wanteth in the one, he may find in the other. Lucullus answered Pompey well; who, when he saw his stately galleries, and rooms so large and lightsome, in one of his houses, said, Surely an excellent place for summer, but how do you in winter? Lucullus answered, Why, do you not think me as wise as some fowl are, that ever change their abode towards the winter? www.verywen.com
所谓的环境差,不仅是指空气差,还包括交通差和商场欠佳;,他会告诉你,不良的缺林木邻居也是一个缺陷。还有一些事我不想多说,如果你请教一下莫摩斯如缺水、、缺果园、缺风景;缺可供打猎、放鹰、跑马的场地;离海过近或过远;缺少可通航的河流,或者备受河水泛滥的祸害;离大城市过远,做事不便;或离大城市过近,日常的开支太高;等等。所有的这些缺陷,或许不会全在一起,但在动工之前去予以认真考虑,然后择善而从是不会错。而且,如果拥有好几处住房,就可以在使用时搭配一下,使一处的缺陷能在下一处得到弥补。据说,有一次庞培拜访卢库拉斯,见他去的住宅廊柱高大,房间宽敞,就说:这真是个消夏的好地方,但是你冬天怎么办呢?路库拉斯答道:啊,莫非你认为我还不如鸟吗?它们到了冬天也知道要挪窝呢! copyright verywen.com

To pass from the seat, to the house itself; we will do as Cicero doth in the orators art; who writes books De Oratore, and a book he entitles Orator; whereof the former, delivers the precepts of the art, and the latter, the perfection. We will therefore describe a princely palace, making a brief model thereof. For it is strange to see, now in Europe, such huge buildings as the Vatican and Escurial and some others be, and yet scarce a very fair room in them.
西塞罗在论述演说家的艺术时,先写了几本题为《论演说者》的书,讲述演说家的原理;又写了一本名曰《演说家》的书,记叙了一些实例。鉴此,我们在谈论建筑时,也可以借助西塞罗的方法。所以,我将描述一座宫殿,以它为一个简要的模型。因为,令人费解的是,在今日的欧洲,虽不乏梵蒂冈和西班牙王宫那样雄伟的建筑,却很难找到一处优雅的房间. copyright verywen.com

First, therefore, I say you cannot have a perfect palace except you have two several sides; a side for the banquet, as it is spoken of in the book of Hester, and a side for the household; the one for feasts and triumphs, and the other for dwelling. I understand both these sides to be not only returns, but parts of the front; and to be uniform without, though severally partitioned within; and to be on both sides of a great and stately tower, in the midst of the front, that, as it were, joineth them together on either hand. I would have on the side of the banquet, in front, one only goodly room above stairs, of some forty foot high; and under it a room for a dressing, or preparing place, at times of triumphs. On the other side, which is the household side, I wish it divided at the first, into a hall and a chapel (with a partition between); both of good state and bigness; and those not to go all the length, but to have at the further end, a winter and a summer parlor, both fair. And under these rooms, a fair and large cellar, sunk under ground; and likewise some privy kitchens, with butteries and pantries, and the like. copyright verywen.com
在宴客的楼上,其正面可以留出其正面可以留出一间华丽的房间,约40英尺高,用于举行大规模的庆典或豪华的宴会.相应地,在楼下要设一间更衣室,用以庆典时做预备工作;在另一侧,即住家的一侧,首先应该隔出一间大厅和一间祈祷室.二者必须庄重且宽敞.此外,在楼的尽头可以留出两间小一些的客厅,一间用于夏天,另一间用于冬天,而且都要美观.在楼下,要有一个整齐宽大的地窖,同样,还要有一些小厨房、储藏室、餐具室,等等。

As for the tower, I would have it two stories, of eighteen foot high apiece, above the two wings; and a goodly leads upon the top,railed with statuas interposed; and the same tower to be divided into rooms, as shall be thought fit. The stairs likewise to the upper rooms, let them be upon a fair open newel, and finely railed in, with images of wood, cast into a brass color; and a very fair landing-place at the top. But this to be, if you do not point any of the lower rooms, for a dining place of servants. For otherwise, you shall have the servants dinner after your own: for the steam of it, will come up as in a tunnel. And so much for the front. Only I understand the height of the first stairs to be sixteen foot, which is the height of the lower room.

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至于居中的那座塔楼,我认为应该比两翼高出两层,且每一层的高度不应低于18英尺。在塔楼的楼顶上可以铺上铅板,四周用带有雕像的栏杆环绕。通往楼上的旋梯应该绕在一根漂亮且外露的圆柱上,栏杆可用染成黄铜色的木雕雅致地围绕起来,旋梯的顶部应有一个漂亮的平台。但是,你不能把楼下的任何房间用作仆人的餐厅。因为,仆人们往往在你用过膳之后才去吃饭,而他们吃饭的那股烟味会像从烟囱里升起来一般。有关宫殿正面的建筑就讲这么多,不过我认为,第一层楼体的高度应该是16英尺。也就是楼下房间的高度。

Beyond this front, is there to be a fair court, but three sides of it, of a far lower building than the front. And in all the four corners of that court, fair staircases, cast into turrets, on the outside, and not within the row of buildings themselves. But those towers, are not to be of the height of the front, but rather proportionable to the lower building. Let the court not be paved, for that striketh up a great heat in summer, and much cold in winter. But only some side alleys, with a cross, and the quarters to graze, being kept shorn, but not too near shorn. The row of return on the banquet side, let it be all stately galleries: in which galleries let there be three, or five, fine cupolas in the length of it, placed at equal distance; and fine colored windows of several works. On the household side, chambers of presence and ordinary entertainments, with some bed-chambers; and let all three sides be a double house, without thorough lights on the sides, that you may have rooms from the sun, both for forenoon and afternoon. Cast it also, that you may have rooms, both for summer and winter; shady for summer, and warm for winter. You shall have sometimes fair houses so full of glass, that one cannot tell where to become, to be out of the sun or cold. For inbowed windows, I hold them of good use (in cities, indeed, upright do better, in respect of the uniformity towards the street); for they be pretty retiring places for conference; and besides, they keep both the wind and sun off; for that which would strike almost through the room, doth scarce pass the window. But let them be but few, four in the court, on the sides only. 内容来自美文网
穿过此楼的正堂往前走,需要看到一个优美的庭院。不过,在庭院的三面,应该有低矮的建筑环绕,四周要有精致的楼梯,并且安置在角楼里。院子里不用铺砖,否则冬天就会太冷,夏天则会太热。唯有四周的人行小径和中间的交叉路才可以铺太短。 在宴客的一侧,靠背面的一排厢房,都应该是豪华的陈列室,某中当有三五个距离相等、一字排开的漂亮穹顶,并且要配有图案精美的彩色玻璃窗。在住家的一侧,应有接待室、娱乐室,以及若干间卧室。此外,三面的房子都要是两进的,以免整间屋子都被日晒,这样,只要在房子的,无论上午还是下午,你都可以找到避开阳光的房间。有时你会看到,有些漂亮的房子满是玻璃窗,结果人都不知道该往哪走,才可以避开日晒或寒冷。我觉得凸显的窗户很有用,因为他们不但是供人交谈的幽静处,而且能够遮阳、挡风。不过这种窗户的数量不宜过多,只要在房子的两侧各修建两个就足够了。

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Beyond this court, let there be an inward court, of the same square and height; which is to be environed with the garden on all sides; and in the inside, cloistered on all sides, upon decent and beautiful arches, as high as the first story. On the under story, towards the garden, let it be turned to a grotto, or a place of shade, or estivation. And only have opening and windows towards the garden; and be level upon the floor, no whit sunken under ground, to avoid all dampishness. And let there be a fountain, or some fair work of statuas, in the midst of this court; and to be paved as the other court was. These buildings to be for privy lodgings on both sides; and the end for privy galleries. Whereof you must foresee that one of them be for an infirmary, if the prince or any special person should be sick, with chambers, bed-chamber, antecamera, and recamera joining to it. This upon the second story. Upon the ground story, a fair gallery, open, upon pillars; and upon the third story likewise, an open gallery, upon pillars, to take the prospect and freshness of the garden. At both corners of the further side, by way of return, let there be two delicate or rich cabinets, daintily paved, richly hanged, glazed with crystalline glass, and a rich cupola in the midst; and all other elegancy that may be thought upon. In the upper gallery too, I wish that there may be, if the place will yield it, some fountains running in divers places from the wall, with some fine avoidances. And thus much for the model of the palace; save that you must have, before you come to the front, three courts. A green court plain, with a wall about it; a second court of the same, but more garnished, with little turrets, or rather embellishments, upon the wall; and a third court, to make a square with the front, but not to be built, nor yet enclosed with a naked wall, but enclosed with terraces, leaded aloft, and fairly garnished, on the three sides; and cloistered on the inside, with pillars, and not with arches below. As for offices, let stand at distance, with some low galleries, to pass from them to the palace itself.

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过了外院,还要有内院,其规模应与外院相同。内院的四周有要建花园,院门可以设计成拱形,与回廊相连。回廊分上下两层,下层面朝花园的一侧,可以修筑一些洞穴似的房间,以供纳凉避暑之用。但会有潮湿之气,不利于人的健康。内院中央还要有一座喷泉或是雕像。两边是自备的房间和画廊,其中有一些可以用于疗养。房间的内部,要尽可能布置得精致讲究,比如在地上铺一些精美的花砖,墙上挂满华贵的饰品,窗上镶嵌晶亮的玻璃,中间再添加一个富丽的穹顶,以及一切想像得到的优美饰品。

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