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培根散文随笔集第36章:Of Ambition 论野心(中英对

2019年10月15日 英语美文 暂无评论
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培根散文随笔集中英对照,通过阅读文学名著学语言,是掌握英语的绝佳方法。既可接触原汁原味的英语,又能享受文学之美,一举两得,何乐不为?对于喜欢阅读名著的读者,这是一个最好的

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培根散文随笔集中英对照,通过阅读文学名著学语言,是掌握英语的绝佳方法。既可接触原汁原味的英语,又能享受文学之美,一举两得,何乐不为?
对于喜欢阅读名著的读者,这是一个最好的时代,因为有成千上万的书可以选择;这又是一个不好的时代,因为在浩繁的卷帙中,很难找到适合自己的好书。而培根的散文随笔,浓缩的不仅仅是文学,还是智慧。相信对阅读和写作都有很好的帮助。 本文来自美文网

36 Of Ambition 论野心 www.verywen.com

Ambition is like choler; which is an humour, that maketh men active, earnest, full of alacrity, and stirring, if it be not stopped. But if it be stopped, and cannot have his way, it becometh adust, and thereby malign and venomous. So ambitious men, if they find the way open for their rising, and still get forward, they are rather busy than dangerous; but if they be checked in their desires, they become secretly discontent, and look upon men and matters, with an evil eye; and are best pleased, when things go backward; which is the worst property, in a servant of a prince or state. Therefore it is good for princes, if they use ambitious men, to handle it so, as they be still progressive, and not retrograde: which because it cannot be without inconvenience, it is good not to use such natures at all. For if they rise not with their service, they will take order to make their service fall with them. But since we have said, it were good not to use men of ambitious natures, except it be upon necessity, it is fit we speak in what cases they are of necessity.

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野心有如胆汁,它是一种令人积极、认真、敏速、好动的体液假如它不受到阻止的话,但是假如它受了阻止,不能自由发展的时候,它就要变为焦燥,从而成为恶毒的了。类此,有野心的人,如果他们觉得升迁有路,并且自己常在前进的话,他们与其说是危险,不如说是忙碌的;但是如果他们底欲望受了阻挠,他们就要变为心怀怨愤,看人看事都用一付凶眼。并且在主上底诸事受挫折的时候最为高兴;这在一位帝王底或一个共和国底臣仆方面乃是最恶劣的品性。因此,为君主者,如果用有野心的人,须要调度得使他们常在前进而不后退,方为有益;这种办法既不能没有不便之处,因此最好不要用有这种天性的人。因为如果他们本身与他们所从事的职务不同时并进的话,他们定将设法使他们底职务与己身一同堕落的。可是,我们既已说过,顶好是不用天性中有野心的人,除非不得已,那么我们就应该说一说,在什么样的情形中,这样的人是不得不用的。 www.verywen.com

Good commanders in the wars must be taken, be they never so ambitious: for me use of their service dispenseth with the rest; and to take a soldier without ambition, is to pull off his spurs. There is also great use of ambitious men, in being screens to princes, in matters of danger and envy: for no man will take that part, except he be like a seeled dove, that mounts and mounts, because he cannot see about him. There is use also of ambitious men, in pulling down the greatness of any subject that overtops: as Tiberius used Macro in the pulling down of Seianus. Since therefore they must be used, in such cases, there resteth to speak how they are to be bridled, that they may be less dangerous. There is less danger of them, if they be of mean birth, than if they be noble: and if they be rather harsh of nature, than gracious and popular: and if they be rather new raised, than grown cunning, and fortified in their greatness. It is counted by some a weakness in princes, to have favourites: but it is, of all others, the best remedy against ambitious great-ones. For when the way of pleasuring and displeasuring lieth by the favourite, it is impossible any other should be over- great. Another means to curb them, is to balance them by others as proud as they. But then, there must be some middle counsellors, to keep things steady: for without that ballast, the ship will roll too much. At the least, a prince may animate and inure some meaner persons, to be, as it were, scourges to ambitious men. copyright verywen.com
在战争中必须要用良将,不管他们是如何地有野心;因为他们底功劳底用处是可以抵偿其他的一切的。用一个没有野心的军人是和解除他底刺马轮一样的。有野心的人还有一件大用处,就是为君王在危难或受嫉之中替他作屏障,因为没有人会愿意担任这种角色的,除非他象一只缝了眼的鸽子,它一上又一上地往高处飞,因为它看不见它底周围。有野心的人也可以用他们来拆毁任何有与君主争长之势的臣民底权势,如泰比瑞亚斯用马克罗以颠覆西亚努斯之事是也。有野心的人既然在类此的情形中是非用不可的,我们就还得说一说这些人应当如何驾驭,好让他们稍减其危险性。这样的人,假如是出身微贱,就比出身贵族的人危险性少;如果是天性暴厉,就比仁爱而得人心的人危险性少;若是新被擢升,就比一向有势,从而变为狡黠善防的人危险性少。有些人以为作帝王者若有了宠幸之臣便算是一种弱点;但是这种事可算是一切对付权势甚大而有野心的人底方法中最好的一种。因为当赏罚是出自宠臣的时候,除了这般人以外,不会有任何人权势过大的。还有一个制裁这种人的方法,就是用和他们一般骄傲的人与之对抗。但是如果用这种办法就必须有些中立的大臣,好使他们稳健;因为若没有压舱物,则船底颠簸将过于厉害。至少,一位做君王的也可以鼓励并造就几个微贱之人使他们成为有野心的人底一种对头。 verywen.com

As for the having of them obnoxious to ruin, if they be of fearful natures, it may do well: but if they be stout, and daring, it may precipitate their designs, and prove dangerous.
至于使有野心的人们常有覆灭之可能的办法,如果这些人是天性畏怯的人,那么这种办法也许是很能生效的;但是如果这些人是坚强有勇气的,那么这种办法也许会激进他们底图谋,反成为一种很危险的办法的。

As for the pulling of them down, if the affairs require it, and that it may not be done with safety suddenly, the only way is the interchange continually of favours, and disgraces; whereby they may not know what to expect; and be, as it were, in a wood.
至于要颠覆野心过盛的人的这层,如果国事或王事需要这样做而又不能突然有所举动,恐有不测的时候,唯一的方法是不停地赏罚交施;使那些人不知道作何期望,如在林中一样。

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Of ambitions, it is less harmful, the ambition to prevail in great things, than that other, to appear in everything; for that breeds confusion, and mars business. But yet, it is less danger to have an ambitious man stirring in business, than great in dependencies. He that seeketh to be eminent amongst able men, hath a great task; but that is ever good for the public. But he that plots to be the only figure amongst ciphers, is the decay of an whole age. Honour hath three things in it: the vantage ground to do good: the approach to kings, and principal persons: and the raising of a man's own fortunes. He that hath the best of these intentions, when he aspireth, is an honest man: and that prince that can discern of these intentions in another that aspireth, is a wise prince. Generally, let princes and states choose such ministers, as are more sensible of duty, than of rising; and such as love business rather upon conscience, than upon bravery: and let them discern a busy nature, from a willing mind.
说到各种的野心,其目的专要在大事上出风头的那种野心比那要事事显身手的那种野心为害较小;因为后者滋生混乱,扰害事务也。然而使一个有野心的人忙于事务,比使他拥有广大的从众是危险较少的。那要在能干的人们之中出风头的人是给自己出难题作的,但是那总是于公众有利的。但是那图谋想在一切的零号中为唯一的数目字的人,则是一世人底毁灭者。崇爵高位,其中有三事;有为善底好机会;能接近帝王与要人;能提高一个人自己底富贵。一个人在希冀之中,若其居心是上述三种中最上的,那么他就是一个诚实君子;而那能在有所希冀的人底心里看出他有这种居心的君王,乃是贤主。一般言之,帝王和共和国最好在选择大臣的时候,选用那些责任之感敏于升擢之感,为良心而爱作事而非为显扬而爱作事的人们;他们并且还应当把喜事的天性与愿意服务的心性辨别出来。 copyright verywen.com
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