A-A+

培根散文随笔集第38章:论人的天性 Of Nature in Me

2019年11月10日 英语美文 暂无评论
摘要:

天性常常是隐而不露的,有时可以压伏,而很少能完全熄灭的。压力之于天性,使它在压力减退之时更烈于前;但是习惯却真能变化气质,约束天性。

前言:美文网是一个专业为广大读者朋友提供各种类型文章在线阅读以及摘抄借鉴的网站,以下是小编精心整理的文章。

.Ndq809 { display:none; }

内容来自美文网

of Nature in Men
论人的天性
Nature is often hidden; sometimes overcome; seldom extinguished. Force maketh nature more violent in me return: doctrine and discourse maketh nature less importune: but custom only doth alter and subdue nature. He that seeketh victory over his nature, let him not set himself too great, nor too small tasks: for the first will make him dejected by often failings; and the second will make him a small proceeder, though by often prevailings.
天性常常是隐而不露的,有时可以压伏,而很少能完全熄灭的。压力之于天性,使它在压力减退之时更烈于前;但是习惯却真能变化气质,约束天性。凡是想征服自己底天性的人,不要给自己设下过大或过小的工作;因为过大的工作将因为常常失败的原故而使他灰心;而过小的工作,虽然能使他常常成功,但是将使他成为一个进步甚小的人。
And at the first, let him practise with helps, as swimmers do with bladders, or rushes: but after a time, let him practise with disadvantages, as dancers do with thick shoes. For it breeds great perfection, if the practice be harder then the use. Where nature is mighty, and therefore the victory hard, the degrees had need be; first to stay and arrest nature in time; like to him, that would say over the four and twenty letters, when he was angry: then to go less in quantity; as if one should, in forbearing wine, come from drinking healths, to a draught at a meal: and lastly, to discontinue altogether. But if a man have the fortitude, and resolution, to enfranchise himself at once, that is the best; optimus ille animi vindex, laedentia pectus vmcula qui rupit, dedoluitque semel.
还有,在起始的时候他应当用些帮忙的事务来练习,就好象学游泳的人用浮胞和苇筏一样;但是过了些时候以后,他应当与困难相搏以为练习,就好象舞蹈家之穿着厚鞋练习一样。因为,假如练习比实用还难,那么其结果就更为完美了。凡是天性甚强,因之不容易克服的地方,其克服的工夫就必须如此方可:第一,在时间方面要阻止天性,不要放纵,就好象有的人在生气的时候默诵24个字母底名字以抑怒气的一样;这段工夫做到了,然后在量底方面应该减少,就好象要戒酒的人,从引觞互祝减到每餐一饮一样;最后,才可以完全戒绝,但是假如一个人有那种毅力和决心,能够一举而解放自己,那是最好的:最能坚持灵魂底自由的人,就是那挣断磨胸的锁链,一举而永免受罪的人。
Neither is the ancient rule amiss, to bend nature as a wand, to a contrary extreme, whereby to set it right: understanding it, where the contrary extreme is no vice.
还有古人底遗训说应当把天性屈到相反的另一极端去,好象一根杆杖似的,以便它再反过来的时候可以适中,这句话也是不错的;不过我们须要明白,此处所谓的另一极端当然要不是恶德才行。
Let not a man force a habit upon himself, with perpetual continuance, but with some intermission. For both the pause reinforceth the new onset; and if a man that is not perfect be ever in practice, he shall as well practise his errors, as his abilities; and induce one habit of both: and there is no means to help this, but by seasonable intermissions.
一个人不可强给自己加上一种不断的继续的习惯,而应当稍有间歇。因为一则这种休息或间歇可以援助新的尝试;二则,假如一个德行不完全的人永远继续练习的话,他不仅练习了他底优点,连谬误也一定要练习了,并且使优点与谬误将同具一种习惯。这种情形,没有别的补救之策,除了用合时的间歇和休止。
But let not a man trust his victory over his nature too far, for nature will lay buried a great time, and yet revive, upon the occasion or temptation. Like as it was with Aesops damsel, turned from a cat to a woman; who sat very demurely, at the boards end, till a mouse ran before her. Therefore let a man either avoid the occasion altogether, or put himself often to it, that he may be little moved with it A mans nature is best perceived in privateness, for there is no affectation; in passion, for that puttefh a man out of his precepts; and in a new case or experiment, for there custom leaveth him.
但是一个人也不可过于相信他对于自己底天性底胜利,因为天性能够长期潜伏着,而到有了机会或诱惑的时候复活起来。就好象《伊索寓言》中的猫变的女子一样,她坐在餐桌底一头,坐得端端正正地,可是有一只小鼠在她面前跑过的时候,她就不如此了。因此一个人应当或者完全躲避这种机会,或者常常与这种机会接触,以便少被牵动。人底天性在私生活里最易看出,因为在那种生活里是没有虚饰的;在热情里也最易看出,因为热情使人把平日的教训忘了;在一种新的事情或尝试之中也最易看出,因为在这种情形里是无惯例可援的。
They are happy men, whose natures sort with their vocations; otherwise they may say, multum incola fuit aruma mea, when they converse in those things, they do not affect In studies, whatsoever a man commandeth upon himself, let him set hours for it: but whatsoever is agreeable to his nature, let him take no care for any set times: for his thoughts will fly to it of themselves; so as the spaces of other business, or studies, will suffice. A mans nature runs either to herbs, or weeds; therefore let him seasonably water the one, and destroy the other.
凡是天性与职业适合的人是有福的人;反之,那些从事于他们本不想做的事业的人,他们可以说:“我底灵魂曾久与天性不合之事物周旋”。在学问方面,一个人对于与他底天性不合而勉强去学的学科,应当有固定的时间;但是凡是与天性相合的学科,那就不必有什么规定的时间;因为他底思想会自己作主,飞到那方面去的;只要别的事情或学科所剩下来的时间足够研究这些学问就行。一个人底天性不长成药草,就长成莠草;所以他应当以时灌溉前者而芟除后者。 美文网

声明:美文网所有文章均来源网络,如有侵权请联系本站删除,如果您觉得我们的文章还不错,可以收藏本站以便下次阅读。

给我留言